1616: The World in Motion
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The world of 1616 was a world of motion. Enormous galleons carrying silk and silver across the Pacific created the first true global economy, and the first international megacorporations were emerging as economic powers. In Europe, the deaths of Shakespeare and Cervantes marked the end of an era in literature, as the spirit of the Renaissance was giving way to new attitudes that would lead to the Age of Revolution. Great changes were also taking place in East Asia, where the last native Chinese dynasty was entering its final years and Japan was beginning its long period of warrior rule. Artists there, as in many parts of the world, were rethinking their connections to ancient traditions and experimenting with new directions. Women everywhere were redefining their roles in family and society. Slave trading was relocating large numbers of people, while others were migrating in search of new opportunities. The first tourists, traveling not for trade or exploration but for personal fulfillment, were exploring this new globalized world.
gap of forty-five years, and English scholars working on the bible King James commissioned in 1604 visited Modena for Hebrew instruction. His most lucrative poem, written in both Hebrew and Italian versions, celebrated the birth of a son to Henry IV of France and Marie de Medici (the boy, delivered by the midwife Louise Bourgeois, would become Louis XIII). The brother of the French king would attend one of his sermons, as would the leader of the French Huguenots. A Jewish Woman Gives Birth to
of Selected Reading. Information about CHEN JIRU and WU BIN relies on The Distant Mountains and other works by James Cahill, and on Chinese painting in general I have at times consulted curators in the Chinese art department at the Asian Art Museum, San Francisco. Witch Hunters and Truth Seekers John Henry’s slim The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science is a great little sourcebook on themes in EARLY MODERN EUROPEAN SCIENCE. Recent books on JOHANNES KEPLER are not
Pieterszoon, 25 coffee, 256, 257, 267 Cohen, Leonard, 238–239 Cohen, Mark R., 366 colf, 141 Columbus, Christopher, 84, 200 Commedia dell’Arte, 31, 131 Conner, James A., 365 Connolly, Priscilla, 362 Cooper, George Perrigo, 365 Coornhert, Dirck Volckertsz, 149 Copernicanism, 202, 204, 337 Copernicus, 204; On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres, 204 Coria del Rio, Spain, 335 Corr, William, 367 corsairs, 19–20, 274–279, 367 Cortés, Hernán, 38 cortigiane oneste (“reputable
Rome and Castile.” Poma’s manuscript reached Spain but was probably never seen by the king. It entered the library of a Danish diplomat as an intriguing curiosity, and was lost in the Danish Royal Library from the 1660s until 1908, when a German researcher chanced upon it. Today, with the support of Rolena Adorno, the leading authority on Poma, the library has made the entire work available in facsimile on the Internet, its illustrations electronically enhanced to be truer to the original than
an apparently fatal injury. When a priest was called for last rites, the injured warrior revealed her identity as Catalina de Erauso, a Basque woman from Spain. (The rites proved unnecessary, and she fully recovered.) De Erauso’s military service, quick temper, propensity for violence, and prowess with the sword are documented in historical records. Her baptismal certificate and convent fees are a matter of record. High-ranking eyewitnesses formally testified to her service in the Americas.