Battling and Managing Disease (Health and Disease in Society)
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Today it is widely known that certain diseases are contagious, whereas others are not, and that a specific malady may be a ruesult of where an individual lives or works, of what a person eats or drinks, or of the genes he or she inherited. This understanding of illness first emerged, along with other advances in human culture in ancient Greece, when perople began to formulate scientific theories about the origins of disease. One of the first to recognize that air, water, and the environment can all be sources of sickness was Greek physician Hippocrates, who lived in the 5th to 4th centuries BCE.
The people of the ancient world and the Middle Ages suffered periodically from epidemics of highly contagious illnesses, such as leprosy and smallpox, which afflicted large portions of Earth's population. Today, with the benefit of advanced medical knowledge and systems of public health care, the devastation seems unimaginable. But centuries age, there was little knowlege of how to stop contagion. Some of the first advancements included the establishment of hospitals the development of quarantine (isolation) for infected patients and the improvement of sanitation.
National Institutes of Health The necessity of a government effort was questioned when a rival operation, Celera Genomics, emerged in 1998 and appeared to be working even faster than the HGP at deciphering the human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence. Headed by American geneticist and businessman J. Craig Venter, a former NIH scientist, Celera had devised its own, quicker method—though some scientists, Collins among them, questioned the accuracy of the work. However, in the end the public
can earn an excellent income. The poor, however, both in the cities and in the country, can get medical attention only if it is paid for by the state, by some supranational body, or by a mission or other charitable organization. Moreover, the quality of the care they receive is often poor, and in remote regions it may be lacking altogether. In practice, hospitals run by a mission may cooperate closely with state-run health centres. Because physicians are scarce, their skills must be used to best
total, as is the skin covering the head and neck. The percentage on each leg is 18, and the percentage on the trunk is 18 on the front and 18 on the back. The percentage of damaged skin affects the chances of survival. Most people can survive a second-degree burn affecting 70 percent of their body area, but few can survive a third-degree burn affecting 50 percent. If the area is down to 20 percent, most people can be saved, though elderly people and infants may fail to survive a 15 percent skin
obesity. Morbid obesity (also known as extreme, or severe, obesity) is defined as a BMI of 40.0 or higher. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. THE OBESITY EPIDEMIC Body weight is influenced by the interaction of multiple factors. There is strong evidence of genetic predisposition to fat accumulation, and obesity tends to run in families. However, the rise in obesity in populations worldwide since the 1980s has outpaced the rate at which genetic mutations are normally incorporated into
structures can kill—for instance, tumours that compress the brainstem, where the centres that control breathing are located. However, it is unusual for a benign tumour to cause the death of an individual. When the behaviour of a neoplasm is difficult to predict, it is designated as being of “undetermined malignant potential,” or “borderline.” RATES AND TRENDS The risk that an individual faces of developing and dying from cancer is expressed by incidence and mortality rates. (Incidence is