Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Based on the work and contributions of 46 scientists, managers, and policymakers, Ecological Assessment of Selenium in the Aquatic Environment documents the state of the science and explores how to use this information when assessing and managing the environmental effects of Se. A focused discussion on the fate and effects of Se in aquatic ecosystems, the book reviews:
- Past and current problems related to Se in aquatic environments, together with lessons learned, and provides a generalized conceptual model
- Environmental partitioning, in particular Se speciation leading to its entry into the food chain, and provides conceptual models specific to environmental partitioning.
- Se bioaccumulation and trophic transfer from the physical environment (i.e., water-column particulates), and from primary producers to herbivores to carnivores, including the influence of modifying ecological factors
- Toxic effects from Se, in particular body burdens and their relationship to toxicity
Filled with practical guidance and concise information on how to conduct selenium risk assessments in the aquatic environment, the book contains the latest information on assessment techniques, elucidates the current state of contamination in industrialized countries, and raises awareness for developing nations. Written by leading experts, it describes best practices for designing experiments to collect information on aquatic effects and trophic transfer of selenium for risk assessments, presents numerous case studies both domestic and international, and gives insight as to how current and future ecosystems may or may not be affected.
nanospheres (Oremland et al. 2004). Possibly because of chelation with organic acids, siderophores, and phenols produced by bacteria in the rhizosphere, bacteria increase the efficiency of Hg and Se uptake by wetland plants (Pilon-Smits 2005). Bacteria in aquatic systems accumulate approximately twice as much Se as do phytoplankton, and neither appears to be impaired by its Se uptake (Baines et al. 2004). 6.4.2 Algae and Plants Greater concentrations of Se enter marine food webs because some
Snodgrass JW, Baionno JA, Roe JH, Staub BP, Jackson BP. 2005b. Functional relationships among selenium concentrations in the diet, target tissues, and nondestructive tissue samples of two species of snakes. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:344–351. Hopkins WA, DuRant SE, Staub BP, Rowe CL, Jackson BP. 2006. Reproduction, embryonic development, and maternal transfer of contaminants in an amphibian Gastrophryne carolinensis. Environ Health Persp 114:661–666. Hopkins WA, Hopkins LB, Unrine JM, Snodgrass J,
Mesocosms In these studies, animals (typically bivalves or fish) are placed in vessels containing water or water and sediment (either Se-spiked or naturally contaminated) mixtures. Standard protocols (e.g., ASTM 2008) are available to provide guidance on the selection of appropriately sized containers, ratios of water and sediment volume to organism size to conduct experiments. Guidance on other issues such as aeration, feeding, and assessment of organism condition is also available (e.g.,
and algae. J Anal At Spectrom 16:1403–1408. LeDuc DL, Terry N. 2005. Phytoremediation of toxic trace elements in soil and water. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 32:514–520. Leighton FAT. 1989. Pollution and wild birds: North America in the 1980’s. Can Vet J 30:783–785. Lemly AD. 1985. Ecological basis for regulating aquatic emissions from the power industry: the case with selenium. Regul Toxicol Pharm 5:465–486. Lemly AD. 2002. Selenium assessment in aquatic ecosystems: a guide for hazard evaluation
bird eggs is representative of a relatively short-term (few days) snapshot of a female’s dietary exposure during ovulation; moreover, females also return to laying Se-normal (“clean”) eggs within days to weeks of switching to a Se-normal diet, depending on the starting point (Heinz 1996). One implication of avian egg Se being derived primarily from the diet over a discrete time window is that eggs within a single clutch in nature can contain Se concentrations that vary to the extent that the