Ecology: Global Insights and Investigations
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Peter Stiling, co-author of Biology by Brooker et al., has introduced a new ecology text to the market. The main goal of this latest ecology text is to show how ecology is important in understanding global change. The book's main objective is to teach the basic principles of ecology and to relate these principles to many of the Earth's ecological problems.
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its redeposition and recementation. Metamorphic rocks are igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed by high pressures and temperatures deep underground. Age is also important. Young soils, often less than 10,000 years old, occur in areas recently uncovered by glaciers, such as northern North America and Europe, or areas recently covered by sediments, such as river valleys. Older soils are generally tropical and may be 100,000 years old or greater. The older the soil, the greater the
passive sampling. For example, mist nets, consisting of very fine netting spread between trees, can entangle flying birds and bats (Figure 8.4a). Pitfall traps set into the ground can catch species wandering over the surface, such as spiders, lizards, or beetles (Figure 8.4b). Baited snap traps, like mouse traps, or live traps can catch small mammals. Population density can thus be estimated as the number of animals caught per trap or per unit area where a given number of traps are set, for
became extinct. Researcher J. Alan Pounds and his colleagues on this study noted that populations of other species, such as the Panamanian golden frog, Atelopus zeteki, had been greatly reduced. The question was why. Pounds’ study identified the culprit as a disease-causing fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but implicated global warming as the agent causing the elevated fungal outbreaks. One effect of global warming is increased cloud cover that reduces daytime temperatures and raises
many of the populations isolated for thousands of generations by the Pleistocene glaciations did not achieve full species status. Change occurs gradually over a long time period. Rapid evolutionary change Horizontal lines represent rapid evolutionary change while vertical lines are periods of equilibrium in which change is minimal. Rapid evolutionary change Phenotypic change (b) Figure 3.25 The pace of speciation. (a) Gradualism depicts evolution as a gradual change in phenotype from
10% in 100 years Table 3.4 Numbers of threatened vertebrate species, by taxon, according to the IUCN, as of 2007. Number threatened in 2007, as % of species described Number threatened in 2007, as % of species evaluated 1,094 20% 22% 1,217 12% 12% 1,385 422 5% 30% Number of described species Number of species evaluated by 2007 Number of threatened species in 2007 Mammals 5,416 4,863 Birds 9,956 9,956 Reptiles 8,240 Amphibians 6,199 5,915 1,808 29% 31% Fishes 30,000