Environmental Physiology of Plants, Third Edition

Environmental Physiology of Plants, Third Edition

Language: English

Pages: 367

ISBN: 0122577663

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This is the third edition of an established and successful university textbook. The original structure and philosophy of the book continue in this new edition, providing a genuine synthesis of modern ecological and physiological thinking, while entirely updating the detailed content. New features include a fresh, unified treatment of toxicity, emphasizing common features of plant response to ionic, gaseous, and other toxins, explicit treatment of issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire in plant physiology and communities. The illustrations in the text are improved over previous editions, including color plates for the first time, and the authors' continuing commitment to providing wide citation of the relevant literature has further improved the reference list. This revision of Environmental Physiology of Plants will ensure the reputation of this title as a useful and relevant text well into the 21st century.

Key Features
* Includes enhanced illustrations, now with color plates
* Examines new molecular approaches which can be harnessed to solve problems in physiology
* Features new topics such as the unified treatment of toxicity, an explicit treatment of the issues relating to global change, and a section on the role of fire



















shoots that grow out below the apical meristem. In Japanese maples (section Palmata) this angle is very large (>65  ) because the apical meristem dies each season. The resulting tree architecture is quite distinct from that of other maples, which have narrow bifurcation angles (45 — 60  ). In contrast, leaf size is a character that appears to change frequently, presumably as species evolve in distinct environments where powerful selection pressures apply, and closely related species may

move freely. Total carbon fixation by tethered leaves averaged 318 mmol C mÀ2, whereas free leaves fixed 457 mmol mÀ2. Transpiration was also greater in free leaves (152 as opposed to 119 mol H2O mÀ2) but even so water use efficiency (carbon fixed per unit water transpired) was still greater at 2.99 mmol molÀ1 in free than in tethered leaves (2.66 mmol molÀ1). 5. Flowering Reproductive development in many temperate species is determined by photoperiod, detected by phytochrome; in equatorial

90 Environmental Physiology of Plants Non-labile pool Labile pool Soil solution Organisms Organic matter Figure 3.10 Model of compartmentation of adsorbed ions in soil. The labile pool is the proportion of nondissolved ion that is readily exchangeable, in the case of phosphate for 32P. The thickness of the arrows indicates the balance of the equilibrium 4. Cycles The supply of ions from soil can be viewed in terms of mineral cycles, with inputs to and losses from the ecosystem and rates of

mechanism to achieve that state, in which the excess N may be used for 120 Environmental Physiology of Plants non-metabolic purposes such as defence (McKey, 1994). In this view, legumes would not be expected to occur especially in soils of low N availability; rather, they would be found as minor members of a wide range of communities on a variety of soils, as is often the case. This would provide a distinct view of the ecological preferences of legumes, but would not affect our understanding

great enough to account for the increased uptake, even for ectomycorrhizas, where such an explanation might be more attractive because the root is enclosed in the fungal sheath. For arbuscular mycorrhizas, Sanders and Tinker (1973) calculated the greatest inflow that onion roots in a sandy soil could achieve at the maximum rate of diffusive supply, irrespective of the uptake kinetics. They showed that this would be 3.5 pmol mÀ1 sÀ1, which would be achieved when the root surface concentration was

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