German Romance III: Iwein, or The Knight with the Lion (Arthurian Archives)
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Iwein, or The Knight with the Lion, is a free Middle High German adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes' Old French Arthurian romance, Yvain. Written c.1200 by a Swabian knight, Hartmann von Aue, Iwein charts the development towards maturity of a young knight who falls into error, neglecting his hard-won wife by devoting himself excessively to chivalric pursuits. This parallel-text edition, offering the first English translation, is based on one of the two earliest complete manuscripts, Giessen, University Library, no. 97 (Iwein B), dating from the second quarter of the thirteenth century. It contains a large number of lines, particularly in the later stages of the poem, which are not present in the other early manuscript, A (Heidelberg, cpg 397). These show a special interest in the woman's side of the story, expanding a passage concerned with embroidery and weaving, and adding a marriage for the maidservant Lunet, whose cunning brings about the reconciliation between Iwein and her mistress, Laudine. The authorship of these passages is uncertain, but they may be Hartmann's own revision of his text. The volume is completed with an introduction, notes and bibliography. Dr CYRIL EDWARDS is Senior Research Fellow of the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, University of Oxford.
stepped out of the right place at all, so that he touched the trap and the locking mechanism, which held all that force and the heavy portcullis gate suspended above – then it would take such a rapid fall downwards that no-one could escape it. Thus many a man had been left dead there. The host rode in ahead of him there. He possessed such skill and knowledge that no evil befell him because of this device, for he had had it installed there. It was heavy and cut so sharply that it could do no
lamentation on account of my lord. Yet they will slay you this instant!’ He said: ‘In that case, I shall not lose my life like a woman. No-one shall find me defenceless.’ She said: ‘May God save you! Unless He alone protects you, you are dead! Yet never, in great extremity, did anyone give a better account of himself than you are doing. You are truly of great courage. You ought to be allowed to profit by that. No matter how much you have injured me, I am, nevertheless, not hostile towards you
forever be ashamed 151 3140 3145 3150 3155 3160 3165 3170 3175 3180 152 3185 3190 3195 3200 3205 3210 3215 3220 3225 German Romance III hât er iuch mêr in rîters namen, sô liep im triuwe und êre ist. Ouch sult ir für dise frist mîner frouwen entwesen – sî wil ouch âne iuch genesn, und sendet ir wider ir vingerlîn. Deiswâr, dazn sol niht langer sîn an einer ungetriuwen hant. Sî hât mich her dernâch gesant.’ Von herzeleide geschach im daz, daz erz verdulte und versaz, daz
sactuoch (4928). The spelling of proper names, which fluctuates wildly in the manuscript, has been normalised to avoid confusion. It was one of Lachmann’s principles to amend on metrical grounds.33 It is, however, evident from close study of Hartmann’s works that absolutely regular metre was not his intention. Additional unstressed syllables, and the frequent use of ‘beschwerte Hebung’ (accentuated stress, owing to two consecutive stressed syllables) occur frequently in his works, as does
puts for these being exclusively Bavarian is not entirely convincing. Klein, following Wolff (note to 6854), argues that the word überlast (8251) does not occur elsewhere in Hartmann, and is of East German origin. The compound does not seem beyond Hartmann’s powers of invention, however, particularly as the verb überladen occurs twice in Iwein (1006; 1519), as do similar compounds such as überguldet (358), übertruoc (1400), überwunde (1519), überkraft (1535). Schneider admits the extreme