Nubia and Egypt 10,000 B.C. to 400 A.D.: From Prehistory to the Meroitic Period
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This is the first book to claim that the Black Nubians played an essential role in the rise of Ancient Egyptian civilization. Ross is the first scholar to argue that there is a shared origin of Nile Valley Civilization between Nubian and Egyptian cultures. Nubia today is known as the nation-states of Sudan and South Sudan, and has been misrepresented for thousands of years by Egyptian sources, which minimized the role the people played in world history. This book draws on recent archaeological findings that claim Pharonic symbolism, sacred bark, and serekh, are of Nubian origin, not Egyptian.
University 111 Ac .!gements It is my great pleasure to thank and acknowledge the numerous professors, mentors, and colleagues who have been supportive of my endeavors over the years. At Case Western Reserve University, Dr. Stefan Machlup, Dr. Atwood D. Gaines, Dr. Jim G. Shaffer, Dr. Vincent E. McHale, and Dr. James Aronson (now at Dartmouth); at the University of MissouriColumbia, Dr. Michael C. Robbins, Dr. Ralph Rowlett, Dr. W. Raymond Wood, the late Dr. Julius E. Thompson, Dr. Rex
is usually associated with Food Production. Intensive gathering is also a possibility, but since there is no definitive explanation for how Agriculture began, one can only postulate this. Prehistoric Nubian archaeological sites can tell us 'something', but what that is continues to be interpretive. Prehistoric archaeological sites in Nubia and Egypt have been identified and dated from about 25,000 - 5,000 years ago, prior to the Khartoum Neolithic, when writing was invented. These sites, in Lower
have supposed to be even more exposed to ecological change than Egypt, they can scarcely be ignored in attempting to understand the historical processes at work at these times. It involves far too simplistic the view of society to see governmental decline as a direct and inevitable consequence of ecological adversity. Its most likely contribution would have been to impose a further strain on the balance between competing 96 ibid., 180. 118 demands for surplus, particularly if it also came at
archaeological sites, over the past century or so.) As I noted in the Encyclopedia of Anthropology (Sage Publications, 2005), Egyptology is defined as the study of Ancient Egypt from the Badarian, c.4,500 BCE, to the Muslim invasion of Egypt in 641 A.D. (identified in Upper Egypt by Brunton and Caton Thompson in 1928, the Badarian is contemporary with Fayum A in Lower Egypt); this invasion brought the "Great Tradition" cultural practices that had coalesced during Egyptian civilization's
relationship between Nubia and Egypt into question recently, in Wretched Kush: ethnic identities and boundaries in Egypt's Nubian empire. I intend to, first of all, deconstruct the claims of these major figures in the study Nubia and Egypt, and present a more accurate representation of these ancient locales. Dr. Bruce Trigger, along with B.J. Kemp, D. O'Connor, and A.B. Lloyd concluded, from their archaeological studies, that there was no evidence of a migration into Egypt by a large population,