The Britannica Guide to Modern China
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Modern China is part of the Britannica Guide Series that offers a comprehensive introduction to the world’s new economic giant. The Britannica Guides series offers an essential introduction to many of the key issues of our time. Clear, accurate, and meticulously researched, the series gives both background and analysis for when you need to know for sure what is really happening in the world, whether you are an expert, student, or traveler.
Manifesto, which promised to give up all special rights gained by tsarist Russia at China's expense and to return the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria without compensation. The contrast between this promise and the Versailles award to Japan that had touched off the 1919 protest demonstrations could hardly have been more striking. Although the Soviet government later denied such a promise and attempted to regain control of the railway, the impression of this first statement and
government at the pegged rate; large numbers did so in a desperate effort to halt the inflation. In Shanghai and some other places, the government used draconian methods to enforce its decrees against speculators, but it apparently could not control its own expenditures or stop the printing presses. Furthermore, the government's efforts to fix prices of food and commodities brought about an almost complete stagnation of economic 70 THE RISE OF THE REPUBLIC (1912±49) activity, except for
not growing fast enough to provide additional capital for its own development and to feed the workers of the cities. Until then, agricultural policy had attempted to wring large production 80 THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC (1949±2007) increases out of changes in organization and land ownership, with little capital investment. By 1956±57 that policy was shown to be inadequate. Second, Soviet assistance had been made available to China as loans, not grants. After 1956 China had to repay more each year
medical care was also revamped. Serious efforts were made to force urban-based medical staffs to devote more effort to serving the needs of the peasants. This involved both the reassignment of medical personnel to rural areas and, more important, a major attempt to provide short-term training to rural medical personnel called ``barefoot doctors''. This latter initiative placed at least a minimal level of medical competence in many Chinese villages; ideally, the referral of more serious matters
AND SOCIETY 123 Leap Forward, starting in 1958, shifted authority toward the provincial- and lower-level territorial CCP bodies. During the Cultural Revolution, starting in 1966, much of the political system became so disrupted that the People's Liberation Army (PLA) was called in and assumed control. When the PLA fell under a political cloud, the situation became remarkably fluid and confused for much of the 1970s. Since then the general thrust has been toward less detailed CCP supervision of