The History of Rome, Volume 3 (Cambridge Library Collection - Classics)
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The classical historian Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) published his monumental History of Rome between 1854 and 1856. His work was received with widespread acclaim by the scholarly community and the reading public. In 1902 Mommsen was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and acclaimed as 'the greatest living master of the art of historical writing'. Mommsen rejected traditional Enlightenment accounts, which glorified ancient Rome; instead, guided by a new and rigorous criticism of sources, Mommsen began the demythologisation of Roman history. In a vivacious and engaging style, Mommsen drew bold parallels between the nineteenth century and classical Rome.
This English translation, first published in 1863, is based on the German third edition (1861).
Volume 3 covers the turbulent period from the reforms of Tiberius Gracchus to the death of Sulla, with separate chapters on nationality, religion and education, and the Roman economy.
squadrons of horse and taking the enemy in rear, compelled him to retreat. On the first expedition to Nepheris, when the passage of the river had taken place in opposition to his advice and had almost occasioned the destruction of the army, by a bold attack in flank he relieved the pressure on the retreating troops, and by his devoted and heroic courage rescued a division which had been given up as lost. While the other officers, and the consul in particular, by their perfidy, deterred the towns
the Achseans. Some 163. years before (591) they had been obliged to release from their league the ^Etolian town of PJeuron (ii. 279); now they were directed to renounce all the acquisitions which they had made since the second Macedonian war—viz., Corinth, Orchomenus, Argos, Sparta in the Peloponnesus, and Heraclea near Oeta—and to reduce their league to the condition in which it stood at the end of the Hannibalic war. When the Achaean deputies learned this, they rushed immediately to the
and just as what was called the decree of the curies was nothing but a decree of the magistrate who convoked the lietors, so the decree of the tribes and centuries at this time was in substance simply a decree of the proposing magistrate, legalized by some consentients assembled for the occasion. But while in these voting- Chap. II.] AND TIBERIUS GRACCHUS. 99 assemblies, the comitia, though they were far from dealing strictly with the point of qualification, it was on the whole burgesses
under discussion (as to the granting of Phrygia to king Mithradates) the senate was divisible into three classes, viz., those who were in favour of it, those who were against it, and those who were silent: that the first were bribed by king Mithradates, the second by king Nicomedes, while the third were the most cunning, for they accepted money from the envoys of both kings and made each party believe that they wei e silent in its interest. 122 THE REVOLUTION AND GAIUS GRACCHUS. [Book IV,
time of the old dissensions between the orders (i. 283), had prescribed the severest penalty. The consul Lucius Opimius took his measures to put down by force of arms the insurrection for the overthrow of the republican constitution, as they chose to designate the events of this day. He himself passed the night in the temple of Castor in the Forum; at early dawn the Capitol was filled with Cretan archers, the senate-house and Forum with the men of the government party—the senators, and the