The Lakes Handbook, Volume 2: Lake Restoration and Rehabilitation
Patrick O'Sullivan, Colin S. Reynolds
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
Continuing concern about water supply and quality, ecosystem sustainability and restoration demands that the modern approach to the management of lakes and reservoirs should be based on a sound understanding of the application of the scientific and ecological principles that underlie freshwater processes.
The Lakes Handbook provides an up-to-date overview of the application of ecologically sound approaches, methods and tools using experience gained around the world for an understanding of lakes and their management. Volume one of the Handbook addresses the physical and biological aspects of lakes pertinent to lake management, emphasising those aspects particularly relevant to large, still bodies of water. Volume two then considers lake management, with particular emphasis on sustainability, restoration and rehabilitation.
This handbook will be invaluable to ecologists, environmental scientists, physical geographers and hydrologists involved in limnological research, as well as advanced undergraduate and graduate students looking for authoritative reviews of the key areas of limnological study.
used to infer past natural and anthropogenic environmental changes, rely on the sensitivity of modern biological indicator species to gradients of variability (e.g. Anderson 1993; Wunsam & Schmidt 1995). 6.2 PHYSICS Depth soundings of water temperature in lakes were initiated in Switzerland and Austria as early as 1848 (Brunner 1849; Simony 1850). Annual temperature cycles and the timing of the onset and 12.7 90.6 1.7 14.5 3.4 18.4 Lake area (km2) 9.9 14.4 582.4 27 1.4 212.5 145.9 61.8 370
C, 1 Ca2+ and 1 Mg2+, and 1 H+ for 1 Na+ and K+. Efﬁciency is a measure of the openness (or relative closure) of the system under consideration. Clearly, deﬁnition of the system boundaries is of fundamental importance. Only where a maximum degree of spatiotemporal unity already exists does it make sense to delimit in time and space. Appropriate system boundaries for consideration of cycling processes are catchments and subcatchments, because of the low material exchange across their boundaries.
favoured in the receiving waters. At the same time, reed in the littoral zone gives way to space limitation and shading by the developing vegetation of the riparian zone (Ripl et al. 1994a) and may even be replaced by a new, more tolerant species. The main species within the littoral DEU must be compatible with the optimisation process of the adjacent unit of catchment. Only the types best-adapted to the changing boundary conditions will persist. In this way, the spread and the decline of reeds
what is now Canada was inhabited by slightly more than 500,000 people, with 100,000–150,000 living around the eastern Great Lakes and St Lawrence valley, and 50,000–100,000 in the grassland–parkland areas of the Western Interior (Ray 1996). People lived as gatherers, hunters and ﬁshers. Whilst Vikings had initially made contact along the northeast coast of North America as early as the end of the tenth cen- The North American Great Lakes: a Laurentian Great Lakes Focus Table 3.1 Physical
Washington. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1031–44. Edmondson, W.T. (1993a) Eutrophication effects on the food chains: long-term studies. Memorie dell’ Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, 52, 113–32. Edmondson, W.T. (1993b) Experiments and quasiexperiments in limnology. Bulletin of Marine Science, 53, 65–83. Edmondson, W.T. (1994a) Sixty years of Lake Washington: a curriculum vitae. Lake and Reservoir Management, 10, 75–84. Edmondson, W.T. (1994b) What is Limnology? In: Margalef, R. (ed.),