Tropical Fire Ecology: Climate Change, Land Use and Ecosystem Dynamics (Springer Praxis Books)
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Fire Ecology of Tropical Ecosystems gives an extensive explanation of historic and current fire situations in the tropics, describing the fire ecology of tropical ecosystems from around the globe. Eighteen groups of leading researchers explain the many different aspects and roles of fire in tropical ecosystems. Regional chapters address a set of common subjects including the causes of fire, typical fire behavior, and elements of the fire regime. In addition, they study the impacts of human land use, landscape fragmentation and climate change on the fire environment and the challenges of fire management in these ecosystems. The common set of topics provides consistency among the chapters and facilitates comprehensive understanding of fire’s place in tropical ecology. This cohesive book covers unique aspects of fire in each ecosystem and includes a discussion of common elements to enable comparisons and syntheses of fire effects in disparate tropical ecosystems. Current scientific literature is too fragmented: it hampers the understanding of tropical fire ecology and degrades all global studies of land cover change and global carbon emissions. Fire
Ecology of Tropical Ecosystems fills a large void in our current understanding of how fire affects terrestrial biota.
The book opens with a general explanation of fire in the tropics, giving the examples of Oazaca, Mexico in 1998 and Roraima, Brazil in 1997-1998. It follows with the concepts and principles of wildland fire, including heat transfer, fire behavior, fuels, weather and climate.
Chapters 3-19 cover the implications of fire in Asia, Africa, Australia, Central and South America, Pacifica and Pantropical, addressing the causes, fire behavior, severity, fire and land use, fire and landscapes (fragmentation and connectivity), fire, climate and climate change, fire regimes (why frequency matters), issues for fire management and regional issues of specific importance or interest. An overview at the end of the book considers the global fire regime conditions, threats, and opportunities for fire management in the tropics.
Schulze, 1998). In Roraima, the ®res continued to worsen throughout the remainder of 1997. The United Nations oered assistance to the Brazilian Government in both November and December, but was given no response from the Ministry of Environment (CNN, March 21, 1998). On January 22, 1998 the Governor of Roraima declared a state of emergency and assumed emergency powers to combat the out-of-control ®res (UNDAC, 1998). Roraima was poorly equipped to combat the ®res, however, with only 80 ®re®ghters
not applicable. n.a 4.1 Æ 0.2 n.a n.a NA NA NA Primary forest 10 Closed-canopy forest condition 6.64 a Shrubland 8 Sec. 2.3] Fuels 35 36 Fire and ®re ecology: Concepts and principles [Ch. 2 Figure 2.4. Fire frequency, total fuel, and total biomass curves. Fire frequency and potential energy release (E, where E total fuel mass Â fuel heat content) vary with site productivity. In arid and semi arid environments low biomass productivity results in insucient fuel to support ®re
heat release rate per unit area of ®re front); propagating ¯ux ratio (proportion of heat that heats adjacent fuel); ' wind and slope multipliers (empirical factors). The denominator terms comprise the endothermic (energy-absorbing) combustion reaction: b " eective bulk density (" is the eective heating number, $1 for ®ne fuels, decreasing with fuel size); Qig heat of preignition (energy per unit mass required for ignition). In this combustion reaction, the most dynamic terms will be
results support Jackson's notion of ®re±vegetation feedbacks, yet highlight the importance of landscape setting in mediating this relationship. 98 Fire-driven land cover change in Australia [Ch. 4 understory understory Figure 4.5. Relationship between time since last ®re, topography, and understory type in Eucalyptus regnans forests at Wallaby Creek in central Victoria. The dates in the diagram refer to the years when wild®res burnt various sections of this landscape (adapted from Ashton,
Australia. Fire Ecology, 3, 32 47. Price, O. and D.M.J.S. Bowman (1994) Fire stick forestry: A matrix model in support of skilful ®re management of Callitris intratropica R.T. Baker by north Australian aborigenes. Journal of Biogeography, 21, 573 580. Prior, L.D., D. Eamus, and D. Bowman (2003) Leaf attributes in the seasonally dry tropics: A comparison of four habitats in northern Australia. Functional Ecology, 17, 504 515. Prior, L.D., D.M.J.S. Bowman, and B.W. Brook (2007) Growth and survival